How has Rock music been able to so successfully permeate into every facet of culture today? Have you ever wondered about that? Is it just a mere coincidence? Or, is there a reason behind it all?
It is my prayer that you find this study helpful as you consider the topic at hand. If you have not read the article, “Music: A Matter of Taste or Biblical Analysis?”, then I would suggest taking a look at that first as it helps explain more basic questions you may have about areas in music that may not be covered here. Please enjoy and may the Lord bless you!
The History & Permeation of Rock Music
A Predicament: How has Rock music been able to effectively penetrate today’s culture? No matter where people are, they are met with this distinct music. There is no getting away. Its essential ingredient, the rock beat, has found its way into many other genres today.[i] Why has it been so prevalent the past sixty years in an increasingly godless culture? Are these two ideas connected at all? Is one a reflection of another? Where did this music come from? These are mind-provoking questions that are too often left under the rug without so much a realization that they exist, but they nonetheless need considered. Greek philosopher Plato offered some haunting words on this issue, saying, “To measure the spiritual temperature of an individual or society, one must mark the music.”[ii] What exactly did he mean by this? Did this heathen man recognize a power for good and evil in music that too many Christians fail to realize, whether unknowingly or willingly? Even his disciple Aristotle, another secular philosopher, said “if one listens to the wrong kind of music, he will become the wrong kind of person; but conversely, if he listens to the right kind of music, he will tend to become the right kind of person.”[iii] Both Philippians 4:8 and Proverbs 23:7 attest to this in that the thoughts, which music sparks, will mold one’s character. This is further affirmed as scientists have researched music’s power to affect neural activity everywhere in the brain.[iv] It is true that music strikes a chord within people that cannot be easily expressed in words[v] for it was music without words that affected King Saul three-fold: physically, emotionally, and spiritually (1 Samuel 16:23).
Seeking Answers in a Rock-Permeated Culture: In lieu of these questions and thought-provoking remarks from God’s Word, scientists and ancient philosophers, it is necessary to analyze the history of Rock music from various angles to best achieve a full picture of what role it possesses. From a Western Culture journey through the classical eras of the sixteen hundreds into the present to a peruse through cultures worldwide, the beginning of time, rock artists’ influences and inspirations, the music’s intricate nature, its affects, and its introduction into Christianity, a musical world will unfold.
From the Classical Age to the Present: What is commonly defined as the Classical music time period from the seventeenth century into the twentieth, culminated throughout the years, changing from the Baroque to Classical and into the Romantic musical forms. These eras were characterized with a style known to this present age of western civilization, that of dominate melody.[vi] It varied with this beautiful melody, technical beauty to broadened expressions, solid harmonics, and controlled rhythm. However, serious change dawned on the horizon with the late-nineteenth century, evolutionary influences of Nietzsche and Darwin.[vii] The rule of God’s Word was severely attacked by humanistic reasoning as morals, absolutes, and rules were tossed out the window. Man was viewed as sole authority to determine right and wrong, and with this came the Contemporary Classical age where musical boundaries were not regarded. It was then through the outbreaks of two world wars and a Great Depression that man’s hope of attaining universal peace was crushed and the focus further shifted to that of nihilism and existentialism.[viii] What better way to communicate this frustration than through a universal language that could express emotion better than words! This was done as society’s temperature in music grew colder towards God and His morals through the culmination of the present-day influences such as Country, Jazz, Blues, and R&B into the outbreak of Rock ‘n Roll.[ix]
Rock hit the stage in the fifties and sixties, featuring complete rebellion against absolutes as riots broke out at rock concerts with injuries and fatalities.[x] Allen Fried, the man who coined “Rock ‘n Roll”, did so after ghetto terminology, meaning fornication.[xi] It was characterized by the driving backbeat on the second and fourth beats. It was as if this generation of young people were hit with a potent drug in the face and went ballistic, most likely due to its barbaric appeal and the damaging influence it has.[xii] Was there something intrinsic in this music or was it just a tool used in one culture’s upheaval of absolutes? While the latter question may be tempting for some to argue, the truth of the matter is that the polyrhythms of Rock music were not just confined to the past century. No, it stretches back a lot farther than that.
Into Cultures Worldwide: Drummer for the Grateful Dead, Mickey Hart, noted in his extensive research into drumming that the backbeat is one of the drum grooves, though not the only one, for trance and ecstasy in the jungle tribes of motherland Africa.[xiii] In fact, this music can be found in cultures around the world from South America to Africa to Asia to Scotland and onward[xiv] with the purpose of trance and ecstasy.[xv] This was not the controlling of the Holy Spirit as Ephesians 5:18-19 describes as its prevalence existed in cultures void of Biblical morals. So, what spirit was invited? This leads to deeper analysis.
European music a few hundred years ago was based off of a predominant melody line in contrast to a dominance of rhythm and repetition in African music,[xvi] labeled by Hart as “syncopated past comprehension.”[xvii] As seen in the Scriptures though, God’s ordained musical order of its three basic components places melody first (Ephesians 5:19, Isaiah 53:2), harmony second, and rhythm last (John 7:38[xviii]). This is due to the Biblical truth that melody, harmony, and rhythm affect man’s spirit (Ephesians 5:19), mind, and body (John 7:38) respectively. Include in this that a Christian ought to be focused on firstly spiritual things (Matthew 6:33), then mental (2 Corinthians 10:3-5), then physical (Romans 13:14). This is God’s ordained musical order that when flipped out of order becomes sensual,[xix] even like it does when the natural rhythmic order is constantly flipped,[xx] which is further understood by implication, mathematics, and physiology[xxi]. What significance does this have? A large reason why the general European music of the sixteen to eighteen hundreds was able to be Godly was because the church and Scripture was a dominant influence at large. Men like unsaved Beethoven or saved Handel could create Godly music because they followed God’s set principles for greatness.[xxii] In a spiritual dark Africa, however, a knowledge of God and His morals were void through a rejection of the Almighty as the influence of the converted Ethiopian Eunuch had been in his homeland (Acts 8). Over the years the darkness set in with complete obliviousness. Where the influence of God dissipated, the influence of “the prince of the power of the air [the devil] (Ephesians 2:2)” gained rule in every aspect of life. Why is this so important?
Scripture declares that both God is musical (Zephaniah 3:17) and His created being Lucifer, now known as the devil, is musical. In his state of perfection, Lucifer equipped with built in musical instruments as Ezekiel 28:13-15 describes glorified God in his music. But in his five infamous pride-filled “I will’s” to grab all the glory that rightly belonged to God, he was cast down to the grave and corrupted with his musical instruments (Isaiah 14:12-15). No longer with perfect music that once glorified God, Satan now uses this corrupted music to glorify himself. Consequentially, music will either glorify God or the devil. Does the flipped order in both the music and the rhythm begin to make sense?
Rhythm, unnatural at that, was Africa’s, like so many other tribal cultures where Godly morals were absent, predominant component.[xxiii] Hart found out that villages’ shamans would become demon-possessed through the polyrhythmic music as the ego left the man, leaving room open for the god Orisha to enter through the head and take over the whole body, creating the erotic dancing movements.[xxiv] These immoral movements were elicited from the music, governed by evil spirits. A master drummer from India experienced these demonic trances to which Hart credited the backbeat as the essential tool.[xxv] The ecstatic states, the erotic bodily responses, and the stark opposition to Biblical morals were all characteristics of this, that which 1 John 2:16 defines as of the world, not of the Father. Satan’s goal in his futile rebellion attempt against God to grab all the glory for himself has been effective in godless cultures through his corrupted music. America and Western Society at large have followed this same path and same intoxicating means as hauntingly predicted by Henry David Thoreau back in the eighteen hundreds.[xxvi] Where the family’s spiritual void was present, Rock easily filled that void.[xxvii] Is it not true that where the place God held in society is vacated, something contrary to Him will fill the gap? Then what about the Rock musicians? Were they purely naïve of any outside influences? Or if not, who were they? Did the tribal cultures play any role with them?
Satanic Masters’ Influence & the Rock Beat’s Intrinsic Nature: The underlying philosophy and beliefs of many Rock artists developed from a man at the turn of the twentieth century, known as Aleister Crowley, one of the greatest Satanists.[xxviii] In his absolutely perverse book of which he dedicated to Lucifer, he sketched the philosophy of, “Do what thou wilt shall be the whole measure of the law.”[xxix] No morals, no God, no rules- nothing, except for every man being his own god. Timothy Leary, who considered himself a reincarnation of Crowley, noted that in spreading anti-Christ philosophy one must start with Rock music that will charm people back into the pagan dance of harmony, something the Beatles did stunningly well[xxx] through their music they said caused confusion, riots, and revolution.[xxxi]
This infamous Beatles band heralded Crowley as one of their heroes on the front cover of their album.[xxxii] Does this not say something of these culture-changing men to have a devout Satanist as one of their heroes? Hitler’s face would have appeared on their cover as well had it not been for a last-minute decision to cut him from the final photo-shoot.[xxxiii] In an August 8th, Saturday evening post in 1964, Alfred Aronowitz said that the Beatles were so anti-Christ, even more so than himself, that it shocked him, which was not easy to do.[xxxiv] Lennon, who claimed they were more popular than Christ, talked about spirits passing in and out of him as if he were a hollow temple.[xxxv]
Crowley’s disciple Anton Levey was the head of the satanic church. He in turn mentored Marilyn Manson, a well-known Rock artist today, who had this to say to parents, “Raise your kids better or I’ll be raising them for you.”[xxxvi] Rock star, David Crosby made further comment in saying that the only thing to do is swipe the kids by “changing the value system, which removes them from their parents’ world very effectively.”[xxxvii] This is because, as Rock promoter William J. Schaeffer says, Rock is linked with a distrust of reason and logic, superstition, main Western thought, an obsession with the unconscious mind with a drug culture to free man from his restriction of his gross physical body.[xxxviii] This dangerous scenario is inevitable unless parents hold back the silver platter of Rock music that contains those things that were held off until the kids were mature.[xxxix] But in reflecting over the early years of Rock, Hart commented that they did not understand this music’s power in producing the screams, ecstatic states, and hysteria.[xl] The problem was that neither did the young people but they were not scared like their parents as they were irresistibly drawn into the dance of this music’s dictates, governed by the backbeat.[xli] If people knew what this driving rock beat, pop music of today was saying, not what the words are saying, but what the music itself is saying, they would ban it, smash all the records, and arrest anyone who tried to play it.[xlii] Oh the influence of Crowley, heralded as a great by many Rock artists, whose philosophy helped in the demise of a great culture!
It is no joke that these Rock musicians were under the influence of satanic masters, who helped them find rhythmic release in their music. Lead singer of the Rock band “The Doors”, Jim Morrison, described his encounter with Satan on a Californian beach before his rise to fame.[xliii] At times when he was hesitant of coming out on stage, his band would begin drumming and drumming until finally the demons possessed him and he came out.[xliv] The movements in his performance were identical to that of a tribal shaman[xlv], who allowed the demonic god Ori to overtake him and cause the ecstasy and erotic dancing.[xlvi]
Mickey Hart explained how he studied under master polyrhythmic drummers in India, who fell into demonic trances.[xlvii] He describes tracing this beat back to the motherlands of these tribal cultures. When the unsaved say what the backbeat does in bringing demonic influence, should not Christians realize that this music is not of God’s Holy Spirit (Ephesians 5:18 & 1 Cor 14:33)? Through a mid-western man’s journey into Shamanism, he explained how that the polyrhythmic drumming, including the backbeat[xlviii],took the individual out of the beta-wave state in the brain, where critical thinking occurs, to an alpha and theta state in which one is hypnotized.[xlix] It is in these places that Rocker Jimi Hendrix said to slip the sublimal message without the audience even knowing it.[l] People have fallen into the music, weakened their guard, and responded to the music’s dictates. Allan Bloom, secular professor at Chicago University, describes it succinctly with no high intellectual sources, but that of one appeal only, a barbaric appeal, to sexual desire undeveloped and untutored.[li] This is because a line has been crossed in music with the driving unnatural rhythm as the body movements have become immoral. Frank Zappa simply put it that Rock music is sex and that its big beat matches the body’s [sexual] rhythms.”[lii] Even Gene Simmons, known as the demon for the rock band KISS echoed that rock is sex with a hundred megaton bomb, the beat,[liii] and that the two are inseparable.[liv]
From reading this can it not be said that Rock’s characteristics of rebellion, hypnotization and confusion, and immoral bodily movements are not just associations? They are intrinsic characteristics of the music itself, having been used and witnessed in cultures worldwide and today’s as well, reflecting godlessness and glorifying the musical devil.
Why then does such a worldly music exist in Christianity when Scripture declares rebellion to be as a sin of witchcraft (1 Samuel 15:23), confusion not of God (1 Corinthians 14:33), and immoral things of the world and not of the Father (1 John 2:16), which are to be mortified (Colossians 3:5-7 & Romans 13:14)? Can one take Secular Rock’s cutout and put it into Christian Rock, and thereby glorify God? How, when, where, and why did it even come about? These questions compel believers to search for answers
The Foundational Roots of CCM: One of the critical foundational roots of Christian Rock began in southern California in the starting of Calvary Chapel. With a burden to evangelize the lost hippies around him, Chuck Smith began a ministry to reach out to them.[lv] His evident sincerity in serving the Lord is not at question; rather, the issue is the means of getting results. One of his helpers who was instrumental in flourishing growth was a hippie by the name of Lonnie Frisbee, a mystic. He “put the freak in Jesus freak. With his long brown hair, long craggily beard, dusty clothing, scent of Mary Jane and glint of his last LSD trip in his eyes, he showed up out of nowhere, at the height of the ’60s, literally on Chuck Smith’s doorstep.[lvi]
Previous to this his conversion to Christianity came off of a trip on LSD with an experience where he claimed that God had given him a mission to reach a lost world.[lvii] His homosexual struggles, vague conversion story, and early tragic death in 1993 of AIDS[lviii] leave room for adequate concern. But whatever one may argue about the outcome of his testimony to be genuine or not, it is certain that Lonnie Frisbee had a heavy influence with Chuck Smith in the beginning of the “Jesus Movement.” Weekly meetings were held and numbers swelled significantly, but in doing so the hippie’s music was brought in unchanged to now be used for worship. While they embraced the teachings of Christ, there was a rejection of many aspects of the institutional churches,[lix] that of practical Christianity. There were still those in the counter-culture hippie movement who kept connections and lifestyles once inside the church along with the long hair, dress, and music known to them, which was somehow given a free pass.
Not long after, this Jesus hit the American mind- communal, earthy, spontaneous, and anti-establishment.[lx] The continuing transformation of American worship into an informal, contemporary, yet true to core principles communion and celebration unbuckled the Bible belt from American Christian life.[lxi] But when the holiness of God is properly understood, will it not beckon believers to worship God His way in true holiness (Psalm 29:2), not according to one’s desired lifestyle? What occurred that transformed the spotless Lamb of God to fit the culture of rebellion, into a buddy level, and severely degraded? Along with everything else Rock music was influencing, here it had re-shaped for the hippies the image of Jesus Christ, and thereby many in the years to come.
Dr. Frank Garlock gives the account of the missionaries who reached a jungle tribe in Africa. Upon arriving, they found that the people were already worshipping Jesus, but as they learned the language and preached Jesus Christ, they found it rather impossible to reach the tribe. They came to find out that this “Jesus” the tribe was worshipping was actually a demon that the witch doctor had conjured up in a séance and introduced to the tribe for worship.[lxii] While it can be assumed that many Christians have the sincere desire to worship God in their worship with Rock music, is this Rock music that has redefined Christ truly worshipping the Jesus of the Bible?
Larry Norman, known as the father of Christian Rock, came on the hippie scene from southern California. He toured with “The Doors” and Jimi Hendrix before recording his groundbreaking works under contract with Capitol Records, home of the Beatles and Beach Boys.[lxiii] This included, “Why Should the Devil Have all the Good Music” in which God declares, “I don’t like those funeral marches/ I ain’t dead yet.”[lxiv] Really? Is this not a misconstrued portrayal of a holy God? Yet, he did so in an attempt to reach the lost on their level, who refused to have anything to do with most traditional churches, somewhat like himself.[lxv] Over time, he was led to Smith’s and Frisbee’s hippie reach-out movement, spending a few years there, where his Rock music found acceptance in the crowd bringing in the world’s music for God-ward worship.
Another pioneer of the CCM movement, John Fischer, described his call to play Rock music for God, noting other pioneers who had received similar visitations around the same time. As a teenager with parents who forbade him to listen to Rock music, he would still listen to it in the car by himself and switch it back to a different station before arriving home from whatever trip he had taken. On this particular night after a youth group activity that seemed to have brought God’s presence, he started up the old Ford. The radio blared on the Beatle’s “I Want to Hold Your Hand.” As he instinctively reached to turn it off, feeling it was not right, what happened in the following seconds changed his life. God, as Fischer, claimed, showed up and asked him, “Why are you turning it off?” A conversation ensued, where he told God he was feeling close to Him, but Rock ‘n Roll being bad was supposed to take his mind off of God. To God’s question that posed if his mind was off of Him, he replied that he had never felt closer. Hesitantly over the conversation, he went on to tell at God’s promptings that the music made him happy and free, just like God said He made him. God’s reply was that he should enjoy Him and the music at the same time, let Fischer worship Him, and write Him this music, inferring acceptance of the sing-along-with-the-Beatles as praise.[lxvi]
What is the likely-hood of God showing up through the means of rebellious music, not to mention the teen’s actions towards his parents? In consideration of this question, it is interesting to note that Fischer acknowledged that a spiritual experience came when the music turned on. But what spirit was it that was casting doubt, saying this music was not all that bad? Was it God as he proposed? Or, was it Satan who is described as “an angel of light (2 Corinthians 11:14)?”
The World in the Church: All in all, CCM was birthed, but now Christians were faced with a glaring problem. How could they justify bringing this music into churches to worship God- a music found in godless cultures throughout the world, intrinsically linked with sex, rebellion, and demonic hypnotization- and suddenly claim it glorified God? Was it the magical power of a “Christian” label? Something came about that had not been the general knowledge to mankind for thousands of years. This was the claim that music is amoral as identified by CCM’s definition of Christ-based lyrics underlined with popular (the world’s) music and the Christian Rocker’s Creed that claims all music is created equal by God and no musical genre is evil.[lxvii] To this type of thinking, Plato offered some choice words over two thousand years beforehand in saying that it is foolishness to say there is no right and wrong in music and that it can be judged by likes and dislikes.[lxviii] What a sobering day when the unsaved world is wiser than Christians (Luke 16:8), and consequentially has to rebuke them.
What difference is a lost world going to see if Christians try to use this sensual music for evangelism? Hippies and rebellious teenagers have refused to accept Christ because they see no difference between the two.[lxix] From the fundamentals to greater orthodox churches and into Parliament in the early 1990’s, Russian pastors and officials told the missionaries from the United States to stop bringing over Christian rock music, as they called it devilish and destructive.[lxx] These pastors acknowledged that Rock music truly attracts people to the church, but not to Godly living, and begged for true spiritual bread over against the false cake.[lxxi] The Israelite’s attempt of mixing God and the devil in worship was condemned despite a clear purpose to have this pagan means of worship directed to the Lord Jehovah (Exodus 32). Even when sincerity was present, David’s instance of transporting the ark by means of a Philistine method fell short because God’s way was unheeded (2 Samuel 6:1-7 & Number 4:15-20). Cain’s offering did as well (Genesis 4:2-7). How is it suddenly different today? Rock music is ultimately a Biblical moral problem in which God’s principles have been violated, a sad truth that has been echoed in its permeation of godless cultures worldwide, including America and into Christianity’s churches today. Is it any wonder why, as Charles Spurgeon said, the church has so little influence over the world? It is because the godless world and its music has drastically influenced Christianity, causing them to lose their salty savor (Matthew 5:13) as “evil communications corrupt good manners (1 Corinthians 15:33).” Galatians 5:17 declares that the Spirit and flesh being opposite cannot be joined.
Conclusion- A Call to Holiness: What place then has this worldly music in a believer’s life in which God has become their music and song (Exodus 15:2, Psalm 40:2-3, Psalm 118:14, Isaiah 12:2)? The answer? “And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God (Romans 12:2).”
[i] Richard Aquila, “Rock Music” in Encyclopedia of American Social History Volume III, (Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1993), p1808
[ii] Shelly Garlock Hamilton, Why I Don’t Listen to Contemporary Christian Music, (Majesty Music, 2013), p21
[iii] Dr. Neil Nedley, Music and the Frontal Lobe, (Amazing Discoveries, January 12, 2011), http://amazingdiscoveries.org/S-deception-music_frontal_lobe_limbic
[iv] Joshua Leeds, The Power of Sound, (Healing Arts Press, 2010), p111
[v] Ibid, p15
[vi] Waldo E. Martin Jr., “African American Music” in Encyclopedia of American Social History Volume III, (Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1993), p1758
[vii] Dana F. Everson, Sound Roots, (Bible Revival Ministries, 2011), p80
[ix] Aquila, p1795
[x] David A. Noebel, The Marxist Minstrels, (American Christian College Press, 1974), p44-47
[xi] David Byers, Christian Rock: Fresh Fire or Strange Fire?, (Calvary Chapel, –)
[xii] Allan Bloom, The Closing of the American Mind, (Simon and Schuster, 1987), p73
[xiii] Mickey Hart, Drumming at the Edge of Magic, (Grateful Dead Books, 1990), p185&228
[xiv] Christian Berdahl, The Distraction Dilemma, (Shepherd’s Call Ministry, 2012)
[xv] Leeds, p15
[xvi] Martin Jr., p1758
[xvii] Hart, p197
[xviii] Everson, p137-138
[xix] Frank Garlock & Kurt Woetzel, Music in the Balance, (Majesty Music, 1992), p65
[xx] Dr. and Mrs. Ronald Jay Cannon, Striving for Excellence, (Institute in Basic Life Principles, 1989), p11&18
[xxi] Leeds, p72-73
[xxii] Tim Fischer, The Battle for Christian Music, (Sacred Music Services, 2004), p16
[xxiii] Berdahl, 2012
[xxiv] Hart, p202-203
[xxv] Ibid, p154
[xxvii] Bloom, p76
[xxviii] John Blanchard & Dan Lucarini, Can We Rock the Gospel?, (Evangelical Press, 2006), p82-84
[xxix] Tim Maroney, Do What Thou Wilt, (The Tim Maroney Web Collections, 2002), http://tim.maroney.org/CrowleyIntro/Do_What_Thou_Wilt.html
[xxx] Blanchard & Lucarini, p86
[xxxi] Billy Shepherd, The True Story of the Beatles, (Bantam Books Inc., 1964), p70
[xxxii] Berdahl, 2012
[xxxiii] Raul, Hitler Did Not Make The Final Cut On The Beatles “Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band” Album Cover, (Feelnumb, January 14, 2010), http://www.feelnumb.com/2010/01/24/adolf-hitler-did-not-make-the-cut-on-the-beatles-sgt-pepper-album-cover/
[xxxvi] Berdahl, 2012
[xxxvii] Garlock & Woetzel, p10-11
[xxxviii] Ibid, p26
[xxxix] Bloom, p73
[xl] Hart, p228
[xlii] Hamilton, p25
[xliii] Jim Morrison, The Lost Writings of Jim Morrison, (Vintage, 1988), p.36-37
[xliv] Byers, —
[xlvi] Hart, p202-203
[xlvii] Hart, p143-155
[xlviii] Ibid, p185
[xlix] Jaime Meyer, Why Do We Drum?, (Drumming the Soul Awake, 2014), http://www.drummingthesoulawake.com/why-do-we-drum.html
[l] Blanchard & Lucarini, p54
[li] Bloom, p73
[lii] Blanchard & Lucarini, p114
[liii] Ibid, p115
[liv] Hamilton, p33
[lv] Robert King, Calvary Chapel History, (Calvary Chapel History & Beliefs, 2014), http://calvarychapelhistory.com/Calvary-History.html
[lvi] The Roots: Lonnie Frisbee, (InPlainSite,—) http://www.inplainsite.org/html/vineyard_lonnie_frisbee.html
[lvii] David D. Sabitino, Frisbee: The Life & Death of a Hippie Preacher, (Passion River, 2008)
[lix] Robert King, The Jesus Movement, (Calvary Chapel History & Beliefs, 2014), http://calvarychapelhistory.com/Jesus-Movement.html
[lx] Erick Davis, I’d Like to Dedicate This Next Song to Jesus: The Freaky Origins of Christian Rock, (Slate, July 31, 2007),http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/music_box/2007/07/id_like_to_dedicate_this_next_song_to_jesus.html
[lxii] Frank Garlock, Can Rock Music Be Sacred?, (Musical Ministries, 1974), p8
[lxiii] Michael Ciana, CCM Hall of Fame: Larry Norman, (Todays Christian Music powered by CCM Magazine, –), http://www.todayschristianmusic.com/artists/larry-norman/features/ccm-hall-of-fame-larry-norman/
[lxiv] Woody Woodland, Larry Norman: A Righteous Rocker Remembered and my Rock ‘n Roll Pilgrimage, (Today’s Christian Music powered by CCM Magazine, March 10, 2008), http://www.todayschristianmusic.com/artists/larry-norman/features/larry-norman-a-righteous-rocker-remembered-and-my-rock-n-roll-pilgrimage/
[lxv] Gregory Rumburg, Rock for the Ages, (Today’s Christian Music powered by CCM Magazine, –), http://www.todayschristianmusic.com/artists/larry-norman/features/rock-for-the-ages/
[lxvi] John Fischer, Finding God Where You Least Expect Him, (Third Day Books, 2013), p8-9
[lxvii] Scott Aniol, Worship in Song, (BMH Books, 2009), p76
[lxviii] Eric Holmberg, Hell’s Bells -The Dangers of Rock and Roll Part, (Reel to Real Ministries, 2006)
[lxix] Frank Garlock, p26-27
[lxx] Youth Who Have Found Freedom, How to Conquer the Addiction of Rock Music, (Institute in Basic Life Principles, 1993), p23-24
Daniel Diedrich- posted July 27, 2015